Enhancing and modulating the intrinsic acidity of imidazole and pyrazole through beryllium bonds
The structure and electronic properties of the complexes formed by the interaction of imidazole and pyrazole with different BeXH(BeX2) (X = H, Me, F, Cl) derivatives have been investigated via B3LYP/6−311+G(3df,2p)//B3LYP/6−31+G(d,p) calculations. The formation of these azole:BeXH(BeX2) complexes is accompanied by a dramatic enhancement of the intrinsic acidity of the azole, as the deprotonated azole is much more stable after the aforementioned interaction. Most importantly, the increase in acidity is so large that the azole:BeXH or azole:BeX2 complexes behave as NH acids, which are stronger than typical oxyacids such as phosphoric acid and oxalic acid. Interestingly, the increase in acidity can be tuned through appropriate selection of the substituents attached to the Be atom, permitting us to modulate the electron-accepting ability of the BeXH or BeX2 molecule.