J. Phys. Org. Chem. 26, 378-385 (2013)

DOI: 10.1002/poc.3099

Solvent effects on guanidinium-anion interactions and the problem of guanidinium Y-aromaticity


We have calculated the complexes formed by guanidine/guanidinium and HCl/Cl, HNO3/NO3 and H2SO4/HSO4 both in the gas and aqueous Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) phase to understand the effect that solvation has on their interaction energies. In the gas phase, the cation–anion complexes are much more stable than the rest; however, when PCM-water is considered, this energetic difference is not as large due to the extra stabilization that the ions suffer when in aqueous solution. All the complexes were analyzed in terms of their AIM and NBO properties. In all cases, water solvation seems to “dampen” those properties observed in the gas phase. The values of Nucleus Independent Chemical Shift (NICS)(1) and NICS(2) indicate a huge influence of the proximity of the carbon atom for short distances; thus, the 3D NICS values on the van der Waal isosurfaces have been used to evaluate the possible Y-aromaticity of the guanidinium system. The isosurface in this system is more similar to cyclohexane than to benzene as indication of poor aromaticity.